夏苗苗 发表于 2013-8-2 11:00

雅思写作素材:漫话美食之川菜介绍



  Sichuan Cuisine川菜

  Of the eight major schools of China's culinary art, Sichuan cuisine is perhaps the most popular. Originating in Sichuan Province of westernChina, Sichuan cuisine, known as Chuan Cai in Chinese, enjoys an international reputation for beingspicy and flavorful. Yet the highly distinctive pungency is not its only characteristic. In fact, Sichuan cuisine boasts a variety of flavors and different methods of cooking, featuring the taste of hot, sweet, sour, salty, or tongue-numbing.

  The origin of Sichuan cuisine can be traced back to the Qin and Han Dynasties (221BC-220AD), its recognition as a distinct regional system took place in the Han Dynasties (206BC-220AD). As a unique style of food, Sichuan cuisine was famous more than 800 years ago during the Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279) when Sichuan restaurants were opened in Lin'an, now called Hangzhou, the capital. The hot pepper was introduced into China from South America around the end of the 17th century. Once it came to Sichuan, it became a favored food flavoring. In the late Qing Dynasty around 19th century, Sichuan cuisine became a unique local flavor, enjoying the same reputation with Shandong, Guangdong (Canton) and Huaiyang cuisines.

  Sichuan has high humidity and many rainy or overcast days. Hot pepper helps reduce internal dampness, so it was used frequently in dishes, and hot dishes became the norm in Sichuan cuisine. The region's warm, humid climate also necessitates sophisticated food-preservation techniques which include picking, salting, drying and smoking.

  Sichuan has been known as the land of plenty since ancient times. It produces abundant domestic animals, poultry, and freshwater fish and crayfish. Sichuan cuisine is well known for cooking fish. The raw materials are delicacies from land and river, edible wild herbs, and the meat of domestic animals and birds. Beef is more common in Sichuan cuisine than it is in other Chinese cuisines, perhaps due to the widespread use of oxen in the region. Stir-fried beef is often cooked until chewy, while steamed beef is sometimes coated with rice flour to produce rich gravy.

  Sichuan dishes consist of Chengdu, Chongqing and vegetarian dishes. Masterly used cooking techniques are sauteing, stir-frying without stewing, dry-braising, Pao (soaking in water) and Hui (frying then braising with corn flour sauce). Sichuan cuisine is famous for its distinct and various flavors, the most outstanding ones are fish flavors, pepper powder boiled in oil, strange flavor and sticky-hot.

  Statistics show that the number of Sichuan dishes has surpassed 5,000. Dishes typical of Sichuan are twice cooked pork, spicy diced chicken with peanuts, dry-fried shark fin, and fish-flavored pork shred. One of the popular dishes is Pockmarked Woman's bean curd (or Mapo Doufu in Chinese) which was invented by a Chengdu chef's pockmarked wife decades ago in the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). The cubed bean curd is cooked over a low flame in a sauce which contains ground beef, chili, and pepper. When served, the bean curd is tender, spicy, and appetizing. Although many Sichuan dishes live up to their spicy reputation, often ignored are the large percentage of recipes that use little or no spice at all, including recipes such as "tea smoked duck".

夏苗苗 发表于 2013-8-2 11:02

     川菜

  川菜为什么会成为食者最多的地方菜系?

  从地域上说

  川菜是中国西部四川这块地方出现的菜。在秦末汉初就初具规模,唐宋时发展迅速,明清已富有名气。川菜成了一种影响很大的风味菜系,如今已遍及世界许多国家、地区。川菜它是属于中国的,也是属于世界的。

  从历史上说

  概括地说川菜发源于古代的巴国和蜀国,它是在巴蜀文化背景下形成的。到两汉两晋之时,就已呈现了初期的轮廓。隋唐五代,川菜有较大的发展。两宋时,川菜已跨越了巴蜀疆界,进入北宋东京、南宋临安两都,为川外人所知。明末清初,川菜运用引进种植的辣椒调味,对继承巴蜀早就形成的“尚滋味”、“好辛香”的调味传统,进一步有所发展。晚清以后,逐步形成为一个地方风味极其浓郁的体系,与黄河流域的鲁菜,岭南地区的粤菜,长江下游的淮扬菜同列。

  从基本特征来说

  川菜发展至今,得天独厚的自然条件和丰富的物产资源,对川菜的的发展,是一个重要而有利的条件。川菜由成都菜、重庆菜、自贡菜和素食佛斋菜组成。具有用料广博、味道多样、菜肴适应面广三个特征,其中尤以味型多、变化巧妙而著称。尤以麻辣、鱼香、怪味等味型独擅其长。“味在四川”,便是世人所公认的。

  从烹饪方法来说

  川菜拥有4000多个菜肴点心品种。这些菜点是由筵席菜、便餐菜、家常菜、三蒸九扣菜、风味小吃五个大类组成的。当今流行的川菜品种既有对历代川菜品种的传承,也有烹饪技术工作者的不断开拓、创新。

  众多的川菜品种,是用多种烹饪方法制作出来的。川菜常用烹调技法近40种,长于小煎、小炒、干煸、干烧、家常烧等技法。小炒不过油,不换锅;干煸成菜味厚而不腻;干烧用汤恰当,味醇而鲜。家常烧先用中火热油翻炒豆瓣,入汤烧沸去渣,放料再用小火慢烧至成熟入味勾芡而成。川外人熟悉的麻婆豆腐就是用家常烧法烹饪的。

  川菜的特产原料:

  四川素有“天府之国”之称,烹饪原料当然是多而广的。56万平方公里境内,物产富庶。牛、羊、猪、狗、鸡、鸭、鹅、兔,可谓六畜兴旺,笋、韭、芹、藕、菠、蕹(Weng),堪称四季常青,淡水鱼有江团、岩鲤、雅鱼、长江鲟。即便是一些干杂品,如通江、万源的银耳,宜宾、乐山、涪陵、凉山等地出产的竹荪,青川、广元等地出产的黑木耳,宜宾、万县、涪陵、达川等地出产的香菇,四川多数地方都产的魔芋,均为佼佼者。就连石耳、地耳、绿菜、侧耳根、马齿苋这些生长在田边地头、深山河谷中的野菜之品,也成为做川菜的好材料。还有作为中药冬虫夏草、川贝母、川杜仲、天麻,亦被作为养生食疗的烹饪原料。四川人饮食特别讲究滋味,因此,很注意培养优良的种植调味品和生产、酿造高质量的调味品。自贡井盐、内江白糖、阆中保宁醋、中坝酱油、郫县豆瓣、清溪花椒、永川豆豉、涪陵榨菜、叙府芽菜、南充冬菜、新繁泡菜、忠州豆腐乳、温江独头蒜、北碚莴姜、成都二金条海椒等等,都是品质优异者。与烹饪和筵宴有密切关系的川茶川酒,其优质品种亦为举世公认。

  著名的菜肴有:

  回锅肉:红绿相衬,咸中带甜,微辣醇鲜、味浓而香,是四川的传统菜肴。 鱼香肉丝:色红肉嫩,鱼香味突出。因模仿民间烹鱼的调料和方法制作,故名鱼香。

  灯影牛肉:色泽红亮,麻辣干香,回味甘美,味鲜适口,为佐酒佳肴。因其片薄透明,似民间“皮灯影”故称。

  宫宝鸡丁:鲜香细嫩、辣而不燥,略带酸甜味。

  麻婆豆腐:为四川省的传统风味菜肴。相传在清朝同治末年,成都有个姓陈的妇女,她脸上生有麻子,但是她烧得一手好菜,其店经营的豆腐特别有味道,它麻辣味鲜、色泽红亮,深受群众喜爱,因而得名。特点是:形整而不烂,具有浓厚的麻辣味,牛肉酥香鲜美。在国内外享有盛名。

  怪味鸡块:肉质鲜嫩,咸、甜、麻、辣、酸、香、各味俱全,互不压味,有一种特殊的味道,故名“怪味”。



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